STS - The Space Shuttle
Following the 1975 ASTP flight, there was a lull in American manned
space flights until 1981, when the first flight of the Space Shuttle
was flown. Crewed by veteran astronaut John Young (who flew the
first Gemini mission, as well as three other flights) and rookie
Robert Crippen, the STS-1 mission was the first time the initial
flight of a spacecraft and the first time the initial flight
of a launch vehicle was crewed.
STS Crew Patches
ISS - The International Space Station
While research and planning began earlier, what was to eventually
become the International Space Station was officially approved for
implementation in 1984 when then-president Ronald Reagan proposed
"Space Station Freedom" in his state-of-the-union address.
The station went through numerous designs and re-designs before
finally emerging as a multi-national effort, which includes Russia
as an integral partner. The first component was finally launched
in 1998, and the first crew occupied the station in 2000.
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